IEEE PROJECTS ON CYBER FORENSICS
IEEE PROJECTS ON CYBER FORENSICS
- What is Computer forensic? Computer forensic investigations usually follow the standard digital forensic process or phases which are acquisition, examination, analysis and reporting. Investigations are performed on static data (i.e. acquired images) rather than "live" systems. This is a change from early forensic practices where a lack of specialist tools led to investigators commonly working on live data. …
An Overview of Cyber Forensic:
Forensic techniques and expert knowledge are used to explain the current state of a digital artifact, such as a computer system, storage medium, or an electronic document .The scope of a forensic analysis can vary from simple information retrieval to reconstructing a series of events. Computer Forensics, authors Kruse and Heiser define computer forensics as involving "the preservation, identification, extraction, documentation and interpretation of computer data. …
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Policy, Legal, Legislation & Compliance Risks:
What is Cyber Forensics in the Legal System in India
Cyber forensics is one of the few cyber-related fields in which the practitioner will be found in the courtroom on a given number of days of the year. With that in mind, the following sections are derived from the author's experiences in the courtroom, the lessons learned there, and the preparation leading up to giving testimony. To most lawyers and judges, cyber forensics is a mysterious black art. It is as much a discipline of the art to demystify and explain results in plain English as it is to conduct an examination. It was with special consideration of the growing prevalence of the use of ESI in the courtroom, and the general unfamiliarity with how it must be handled as evidence, that spawned the idea for the sidebar “Preserving Digital Evidence in the Age of Electronic Discovery.”
Preserving Digital Evidence in the Age of Electronic Discovery2
Society has awakened to the realities of being immersed in the digital world. With that, the harsh realities of how we conduct ourselves in this age of binary processing are taking form in terms of new laws and new ways of doing business. In many actions, both civil and criminal, digital documents are the new “smoking gun.” With federal laws that open the floodgates of accessibility to your digital media, the sanctions for mishandling such evidence have become a fact of law and a major concern.
At some point, most of us (any of us) could become involved in litigation. Divorce, damage suits, patent infringement, intellectual property theft, and employee misconduct are just some examples of cases we see. When it comes to digital evidence, most people simply are not sure of their responsibilities. They do not know how to handle the requests for and subsequent handling of the massive amounts of data that can be crucial to every case. Like the proverbial smoking gun, “digital evidence” must be handled properly.
A friend forwarded us an article about a case ruling in which a routine email exhibit was found inadmissible owing to authenticity and hearsay issues. What we should take away from that ruling is that ESI, just like any other evidence, must clear standard evidentiary hurdles. Whenever ESI is offered as evidence, the following evidence rules must be considered.
In most courts, there are four types of evidence. Cyber files that are extracted from a subject machine and presented in court typically fall into one or more of these types:
- Documentary evidence is paper or digital evidence that contains human language. It must meet the authenticity requirements outlined subsequently. It is also unique in that it may be disallowed if it contains hearsay. Emails fall into the category of documentary evidence.
- Cyber Forensics Real evidence must be competent (authenticated), relevant, and material. For example, a computer that was involved in a court matter would be considered real evidence provided that it has not been changed, altered, or accessed in a way that destroyed the evidence. The ability to use these items as evidence may be contingent on this fact, and that is why cyber or digital media must be preserved.
- Data Science Cyber Forensics Witness testimony. With ESI, the technician should be able to verify how he retrieved the evidence and that the evidence is what it purports to be; and he should be able to speak to all aspects of computer use. The witness must both remember what he saw and be able to communicate it.
- Demonstrative evidence uses things such as PowerPoint, photographs, or cyber-aided design drawings of crime scenes to demonstrate or reconstruct an event. For example, a flowchart that details how a person goes to a website, enters her credit card number, and makes a purchase would be considered demonstrative.
For any of these items to be submitted in court, each must pass the admissibility requirements of relevance, materiality, and competence to varying degrees. For evidence to be relevant, it must make the event it is trying to prove either more or less probable. A forensic analyst may discover a certain Web page on the subject's HD that shows the subject visited a website where flowers are sold and that he made a purchase. In addition to perhaps a credit card statement, this shows that it is more probable that the subject of an investigation visited the site on his computer at a certain time and location.
Materiality means that something not only proves the fact (it is relevant to the fact that it is trying to prove) but is also material to the issues in the case. The fact that the subject of the investigation purchased flowers on a website may not be material to the matter at hand.
Finally, competency is the area in which the forensic side of things becomes most important. Assuming that the purchase of flowers from a website is material (perhaps it is a stalking case), how the evidence was obtained and what happened to it afterward will be put under a microscope by both the judge and the party objecting to the evidence. The best evidence collection experts are trained professionals with extensive experience in their field. The best attorneys will understand this and will use experts when and where needed. Spoliation results from mishandled ESI, and spoiled data are generally inadmissible. It rests upon everyone involved in a case [information technology (IT) directors, business owners, and attorneys] to get it right. Cyber forensics experts cannot undo damage that has been done, but if involved in the beginning, they can prevent it from happening.
Computer forensics (also known as computer forensic science) is a branch of digital forensic science pertaining to evidence found in computers and digital storage media. The goal of computer forensics is to examine digital media in a forensically sound manner with the aim of identifying, preserving, recovering, analyzing and presenting facts and opinions about the digital information. Although it is most often associated with the investigation of a wide variety of computer crime, computer forensics may also be used in civil proceedings. The discipline involves similar techniques and principles to data recovery, but with additional guidelines and practices designed to create a legal audit trail. Evidence from computer forensics investigations is usually subjected to the same guidelines and practices of other digital evidence. It has been used in a number of high-profile cases and is becoming widely accepted as reliable within U.S. and European court systems.
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