2019-2020 Compressed Air Vehicle
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One such approach is found in compressed air vehicles (CAVs), also known as air cars, in which a pneumatic motor is powered by compressed air stored in an onboard pressurized tank.
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Although the concept of CAVs has received great attention in the popular press (2–4), there have been few studies evaluating the potential of air cars as an alternative to conventional vehicles. In a recent paper the authors presented an analytical model of a full life-cycle analysis of CAVs, concluding that thermodynamic limitations severely compromise their economic and environmental performance (5). The purpose of the current study is severalfold: to analyze the viability of compressed air and its full fuel cycle as a transportation energy storage medium, to explore the efficiencies of compressed air as a vehicle power source, to calculate the expected fuel economy
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The source of energy in a CAV is the high-pressure compressed air tank. Unlike other fuel types, which store energy within the chemical bonds of the fuel, compressed air derives its energy from the thermodynamic work done by an expanding gas. A compressed air tank is an energy storage medium similar to an electric battery in that both are charged from an external source and release a portion of that power to the vehicle, with the remainder lost to inefficiencies or other limitations.
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compressed air vehicle
In the face of the climate crisis, petroleum dependence, and volatile gasoline prices, it is imperative to explore possible opportunities in unconventional alternative-fuel vehicles. One such option is the compressed air vehicle (CAV), or air car, powered by a pneumatic motor and onboard high-pressure gas tank. Although proponents claim that CAVs offer environmental and economic benefits over conventional vehicles, the technology has until recently not been subject to a rigorous analysis. This study characterizes the potential performance of CAVs in terms of fuel economy, driving range, carbon footprint, and fuel costs and examines their viability as a transportation option as compared with gasoline and electric vehicles. Subjects of analysis include energy density of compressed air, thermodynamic losses of expansion, CAV efficiency on a pump-to-wheels and well-to-wheels basis, and comparisons with gasoline and electric vehicles. Results show that although the CAV is a bold, unconventional solution for today’s transportation challenges, it is ultimately not workable, and compares poorly with gasoline and electric vehicles in all environmental and economic metrics. Further, applications of the CAV are severely constrained because of its limited driving range. The results from this study, including the analysis of energy density and expansion losses, may be used to identify future opportunities for CAV applications. The pump-to-wheels and well-to-wheels methodology contained here establishes a framework for evaluating future CAV designs.
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